Pearls of the world

Preserved in the archives information on the supply of pearls in Europe. One of the “miners” was Christopher Columbus, who had traded it intact bags from the inhabitants of Venezuela. Black pearl brought the Conquistador, Hernando Cortes. The best specimens went to the Royal families: in the sixteenth century those were considered the pearls of the dowry of Catherine de ‘ Medici, from which they passed to Mary Stuart and Elizabeth I.

There are gems with their own history, and especially distinguished pearls get their. In 1579, with one of the Pearl Islands were brought amazing beauty “Peregrina”. Weight more than 10 grams, which is close to the ideal white glitter (the glitter is one of the factors on which the assessment of the pearls). This instance is pushed with any more or less inclined surface, and earned the name “peregrine” means “traveler”. She went to Mary Tudor, and from there went to Spain, then to Holland and eventually went to Elizabeth Taylor.

Among the other treasures of the world are the Treasury of the pearls with the names of “Regent” (the size of a pigeon egg), Large pink pearl (94 grams, listed in the Guinness Book of records, the cost — $ 4.7 million), the Pearl of hope (90 grams, diameter 114 mm, length 51 mm). But there is one pearl that stands out even against the background of their magnificent counterparts, for example, “Head of Allah”, or the Pearl of Lao Tzu. The pearl is so called for its unusual shape, resembling a head in a turban. The treasure was discovered in the Philippines, and weighed over 6 kg. of Course, such a value could not grow into legends.It is believed that 2500 years ago, the founder of Taoism invested the amulet with a picture of himself, Confucius and Buddha in the sink-pearl. In fact the philosopher discovered a method of artificial cultivation of pearls, but in fact it resorted only in the early XX century. The disciples of Lao-Tzu passed each other the sink by inheritance, some clever way to put the pearl in a more spacious abode, and at one point they needed to carry value by sea. Of course, the ship was wrecked, and sink to the treasure fell into the sea.To grow it have not stopped, and therefore, when a Filipino pearl diver caught this sea monster, the size of the new record-holders was 67 cm in length and 30 cm in width.

Today it is the biggest pearl in the world, and its cost reaches $ 40 million However, according to Japanese experts, if you don’t provide pearls proper care, it will quickly “die” so often in the Windows of Japanese jewelry stores you can see a few glasses of water. If you notice such — it means the owner cares about the safety of their product.

Mining in Russia
Saltwater pearls are harvested off the coast of Japan and Sri Lanka and in the Persian Gulf and on the bottom of the red sea. River, freshwater — in Germany, China, Russia and some countries of North America.

Hard to believe, but just a few centuries ago, Russia was one of the world leaders in the production of pearls. They are inlaid crown and Church salaries, Bridal jewelry, clothes and hats.

About the manufacturer of jewelry will not: easy to guess that mother of pearl raw material for them was enough, than the people and used. And in the truest sense, especially where the fishery was conducted: he was not controlled, and therefore women of almost any income adorned the neck beads made from local pearls. In 1843, a German researcher noted that even the poor fisherwoman wore several pearl thread, what can we say about the more affluent women. Permanent mining was conducted on 77 Russian rivers and all reservoirs of pearl-oysters there were more than 150;and a third of the total extracted material gave the Northern province.

Tiaras “Russian beauty” made by order of Emperor Nicholas I to his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna in 1841

As was typical in any important matter, before the beginning of production ought not only to receive blessing, but to repent of their sins, and take communion, because to proceed to the pearl fishing should only in a good mood and with a pure heart. Not allowed no fights and quarrels: it was thought that it can spoil, ruining the pearls. Carefully washed in the bath, dressed in clean shirt, the fishers went to fish. It becomes clear how “grow legs” in Russian beliefs with regards to pearls: how could he not bring good luck to the owner if get it was in a good mood?

In the rivers of Karelia it was mined in the last months of summer, when the water level fell to a minimum, and it is thoroughly warmed. On a specially constructed for this purpose raft in the center of which there was a small hole, the fishers moved away from the shore. Through the hole trying to see the bottom.

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The pearl has been valued since ancient times

He is the only one jewelry does not require pre-cutting or complex processing before the inlay in the decoration. The modern name “pearl” was formed from the old Russian “genug” — the earliest spelling of the word was fixed on the cross of Euphrosyne of Polotsk, dated 1161 year. Was it borrowed the word “genug”, I don’t know, but many languages have similar sound and meaning. In China, it was called “Zhen Zhu” — “real pearls”, Italy — perla (“pearl”).The Italians borrowed it the French and Germans (“perle”), and then the British (“pearl”). The Arabs celebrated “Selcuk” Tatars “Senju”. There are some titles like skaten, Oriental, beading, pearls, Magar. And as every precious stone (maybe stone), pearls wrapped in hundreds of legends and superstitions. I suggest you read a small part of them.

As a symbol of purity and innocence, pearls are often presented in the form of a string of young bride, it was believed that if she held it to the altar, to be a faithful and loving wife, and the newlyweds will be accompanied by prosperity and luck. However, beliefs clarify that it applies only to new pearls: inherited can create the opposite effect.

Regarding legends, one of them says that in Heaven the twelve gates of Jerusalem was created from pearls, and the pearls are nothing like the hardened angel tears: heaven wept for the sins of the people.

In Ancient China the pearl is highly valued. Once the ranks of the dignitaries of the celestial Empire was marked by the ball, which was decorated with a headpiece. Stones for decoration were used the most different, but it is a pearl pendant pointed to the high position of its owner in society. Was the Chinese and their legends. One of them says that once land has been spilled (or rather, was woken up) this rain of pearls of different sizes. He followed a brutal battle between the dragons, which they started in the clouds.Another, less bloody, tells of the beauty of the moon admired its reflection in the sea water. The sea seemed to catch the gentle light and tried to “catch” it open the doors of the shells. There moonlight “focused”, and turned into the same gentle, like himself, pearls, the tiny incarnation of the moon on the earth.

Indian know for his love of jewelry also turned pearl. He was among the top three most expensive gems along with emeralds and rubies, and they wanted to decorate like furniture and household items, and clothing, and hats. Indian legends tell of the battle of king snakes and ancient monsters. The Lord of the creeping reptiles defeated the enemy but was himself mortally wounded. In those places where a drop of blood reached the bottom of the rivers appeared rubies, where they hit the sand — grenades. The dying snake turned into emeralds.The sea itself mourned the king, and his tears, freezing, steel pearls.

In fact, as in ancient times imagined the origin of pearl, it’s easy to find out the true attitude towards him. The stone, bearing a negative (even symbolic), never call “tears of the sea” or “fossilized light of the moon”. Not lagging behind their Eastern brethren and the ancient world. In Egypt, it was believed that pearls give its wearer a long life and beauty. The famous Cleopatra was fond of decorations with pearls, and rumor has it that the Queen regularly saw a mixture of dissolved in vinegar pearls and pomegranate juice (or donkey’s milk).To check the accuracy of this information is unlikely, but legends say that it is thanks to this composition Cleopatra always looked very attractive. This same essence is mentioned in yet another narration. Supposedly, Cleopatra made with mark Antony bet that I will be able to buy him the most expensive dinner in the world. Not suspecting a trick, the man agreed to the bet and, of course, lost: at the end of the feast the Queen was told to bring the vinegar, which to the astonished eyes of the commander dropped his earring with a huge pearl.

Waiting for her dissolution, Cleopatra prepared the drink and shared it with Marc Antony. They say that Caligula, when he appointed his favorite horse Incitatus a Senator, “congratulated” him with the position of the gift and put on horse neck pearl beads. Displayed part of the pearl in cooking, even in the famous Shakespeare’s tragedy:

The king of his health drink. And in the Cup an Union shall he throw richer than that which four Danish crowns the king wore.

This practice was quite common in the noble houses: it was believed that the drink, served in the mother-of-pearl vessel, much healthier and tastier than usual, and the pearl, abandoned on the bottom of the glass, improve the health of the drinker. Tried to add only the choicest pearls, large and smooth. May we ever would have seen these treasures, but alas — the duration of life of the natural pearl are just one hundred and fifty years. So have to settle for just legends and “contemporaries”.But to grow into a beautiful pearl with a diameter of about 5 mm, a grain of sand takes up to 15 years — the first year she can grow up to 2 mm, and then annually add 0.3-0.5 mm.

Gradually forming a beautiful pearl

Sometimes a drop of dew flowing down to the sweet water petal of the flower, the fall turns into a transparent stone. If it falls to the bottom of the reservoir and disappears, and if it manages to get into the open folds of the shell — becomes a pearl. The color of the pearl depends on what flower and what time of day dew drops. When the droplet rolls off into the sunset with yellow pods, and pearls takes on a beautiful Golden hue. Silver color gets the pearls, donated by midday the dew from the lilies, and soft pink — the one that was born at dawn from a drop from the whorl of a Lotus.The amazing beauty of the legend, right? It is believed that our ancestors who sincerely loves pearls. Especially prized pearls of the Northern rivers, which have always been associated representations of Russian people about the joy. Another legend reflecting this view, says that a pitched pearls are tears, slid down the mirror in moments of joy.

How else could people react to the appearance of this amazing stone? I’m not even sure whether to include it in gems, because this creation of nature is a biogenic formation, which was formed by the reaction of a living being into a foreign body.

When the conch shell (in particular, in the mantle or in the space between her and the door) gets a foreign body, in the form of protection from infection is the pearl. Usually, it is produced by the outer layer of the mantle and creates the most beautiful layers in shells, which shimmers like a rainbow. But when injected into the body of the mantle or in the gap between the wings of the grains (pieces of shell, some small parasite, not the point) and it starts to envelop the layer of nacre, thus protecting the body from further irritation, and isolating the foreign object.Concentric layers of nacre will continue to envelop, thereby gradually forming a beautiful pearl.

What it will be, depends on the place that started the “capacity” of mother-of-pearl: if, for example, the grain of sand got between the leaf and the mantle, the pearl will be adherent to the shell. If she got directly into the mantle, the pearls will turn out rounded, not “tied” to shutters. Sometimes it also happens that the pearl is formed without the participation of the foreign body — this is enough for any external damage. The epithelium is displaced into the tissue of the mantle, and place a special cluster of cells forms a seal, which develops a future jewel.One of the Russian zoologists in the early twentieth century conducted research on the pearl oyster from the North of Russia and found that there are three places in the double sink, where it can form pearls. Two of them — in the mantle: below the apical trough and the thickest part, and another in the muscle-contactor, responsible for the operation of the valves of the shell.

Ukrainian wedding traditions

In pre-revolutionary Kiev’s wedding in a few months it was preceded by a “love rigmarole”, consisting of brides, matchmaking and engagements. As he wrote Ivan Nechuy-Levitsky, in Fraternal monastery in Podil allegedly agreed on an evening stroll girls of marriageable age to show themselves to potential suitors.
On the Trinity here was a “general review of brides” when between young people actively fussed matchmaker, negotiating the future of the Union. And when the young man handed a bouquet and a favorite of the girl received an invitation from her parents in the house, it is already considered a suitor.

1920: FIRST REGISTRY OFFICE

In the villages held traditions
Pre-Revolutionary traditions have been violated: the wedding was canceled, instead of their relationship began to register in the registry office (since 1917), which often come in daily or dressy attire. The dress, which then could be called the wedding, looked like this: the most simple, straight cut with a small collar, knee-length. From the wedding he was just a color – white. Equally simple was the ceremony and registration: just had to pay a stamp fee of 20 rubles, the state of the voluntary marriage and sign the registration book. But with regard to urban weddings in the big cities. In the villages and the village tried to continue to adhere to traditions: the festivities would last for a week, and the bride was in a wedding dress with mandatory national attributes. On the found photographs of those years we have seen a couple of Brusilov in Zhytomyr. For the bride – a wreath, while the groom wore a military tunic embroidered.

1930: antiglamur BOOTS AND A GIFT

About the wedding reminds only a white handkerchief instead of a veil. From the family archive A. Panchenko
Not until the wedding celebrations were in those years – Famine reshapes all human plans. They celebrated modestly, without delicacies – if at all noticed. Gifts young bear most practical. For example, you could give the boots, a piece of fabric, skin of a sheep. “Mom and Dad got married in 1935, noting it in his village, and a few days later went to Kiev to be photographed – says from Kiev Irina Panchenko – along time special was not:. The photograph shows that the mother in the ordinary dress top coat, and my father in a railway uniform, similar to the military. ” While in Europe and America bride and groom sported incredible costumes: in evening dress, in a free cut dresses, hats and long gloves. In Ukraine, while a similar and even did not hear.
1940: main dish – salad
Form – the usual attire of the groom. From the family archive A. Korchinskiy
If we describe the then wedding in one word, “minimalism” is best suited. Wedding dresses were not put food on the table a very simple, gave gifts, too rare. From Kiev Hope Veldyaskina recalls its front wedding, 1944 as follows: “Instead of a white dress with a veil on I was blue in the yard was an early spring, but the soldiers managed to give me a whole bunch of wild flowers specially for my husband arranged a dinner in the officers’ mess,… but a simple soldier’s meal – soup yes porridge “. After the war, too, it was not up to the feasts. “My parents celebrated the wedding with another pair of newlyweds in 1948 and one of the grooms even socks were not, and he came in wearing sandals, -. Natalia Voznyuk -.. Celebrated parents Mom Although some there celebrating, if the main festive dish was a salad ? And then my father came into the new family with a dowry – a pillow. ”
On a modest wedding, his parents said, and from Kiev Alexander Korchinskiy: “Parents in 1949 married gathered in a communal Of the guests were three neighbors and the mother’s parents, as his father was orphaned on the table put the potatoes, herring, sausage One neighbor brought in…. as a gift a bottle of house wine, the other started the gramophone needle benefit was for him, too, brought from the front, which cost crazy money. So noted by the German lyrical songs. ”
1950: Start GIVE MONEY

Ukrainian brides outfit rescued. From the family archive A. Panchenko
At this time still had difficulties with festive attire. “My future husband suit borrowed familiar ring bought only to me, – says Irina from Kiev Panchenko – The table was simple:.. Pickled vegetables, soup, herring, and of pig slaughtered in the village.” “The time was still heavy – recalls the wedding of his grandmother Svetlana Eresova -. I was lucky that my grandfather gave a good ration of the work, who put on the table.”

Notes in a circle of close friends and comrades. From the family archive S. Eresovoy
But, in contrast to the 40’s, the guests have already started to come with gifts. “We have money mainly donated, much as they could: at least a handful of little things – says Irina Panchenko – As a result of the wedding have presented us 300 rubles on them my husband and I were able to take off for a couple of months in advance a small apartment in Kiev, buy bed linen and.. little dishes. ”
In the villages walked more festive, managing to collect all his “corner”, as in the old days. A person who has played the accordion post-war songs, dances staged on the first day and the second could sit with close relatives.
1960: open a salon Suite

Fashionable dress – knee-length. From the family archive A. Panchenko
Weddings have become more diverse: a tradition to walk back a few days (usually the first day of a big company, with friends and colleagues or classmates, and the second – with close relatives).

Every nation has the DNA – a unique code, which is hidden in the most simple and seemingly understandable national traits

Our compatriots are now proud to emphasize their belonging to the Ukrainian nation. However, the questions: “What does it mean to be Ukrainian?” and “What is to be a nation?” – Be able to respond not everyone. A nation – a society of people who are united by a single destiny take on the character. Every nation has the DNA – a unique code, which is hidden in the most simple and seemingly understandable: amulets, fairy tales, songs. In previous publications of the special project “The secret of the nation”, we wrote about the code sewn into motanki, lullabies, pysanky, Cossack martial art. At this time, the “Today” with the ethnographers, art historians reveals the customs and rituals of Ukrainian weddings.
“Ukrainians have always cared about their future, especially procreation and strong family, – says ethnographer Galina Oleinik, Senior Researcher of the Kiev Museum of Ivan Honchar -. It has always been that the marriage will be happy if the newlyweds and their families will perform a series of rituals bequeathed ancestors. so certain rituals laid down by action, songs, incantations, dances and formed the basis of the Ukrainian folk wedding. it was believed that if the newlyweds was not ritual act, and then the wedding itself could not be just.
Today, to the choice of wedding date the couple are much easier than before. Also, many now break the old rule and marry in the post, and in fact before this was simply unacceptable. In the old days, wedding ceremonies were complex, and in each region, they have their own characteristics. For the wedding of the family is always prepared in advance, from courtship to wedding was to take place at least 2-3 weeks.
Ukrainians have always sought not only to have fun and celebrate the rich, but also facilitate the process of adapting the girl in a new family, programmed happy future together young, unite rural community. ”
“Fall has always been at times of weddings for the Slavs, – says ethnographer Galina Oleinik -. In general, there is a certain all-Ukrainian” scenario “holiday prenuptial stage included courtship, when the bridegroom did your girlfriend with her parents to participate in courtship groom could either himself,.. or sending a matchmaker to the parents of the chosen one in some regions of the suit looked like a bride:. the groom’s parents could see the future bride and assess its strengths and weaknesses a week after the matchmaking groom with parents and elders went to the bride’s house to discuss economic issues It was called dogovorinami.. . The most interesting topic for discussion was the dowry. in the early twentieth century, spoke about what the beast will father with her daughter and how “open” the earth, and in Soviet times, the dowry had money or household objects. Next followed the engagement, Domowina, invited guests.
Wedding stage included a bachelorette party, baking and decorating loaf “Gilzem” ( “Wiltz”) – ceremonial tree. Usually it was a branch of which is inserted into a loaf, and each of its sprout decorated with flowers, ears of corn, berries, colored threads, ribbons and paper flowers. “Gilzem” symbolizes the World Tree – sacral vertical connecting heaven and earth, the world of the gods to the human world. Depending on the region, “Gilzem” made from different trees, because the name it bore different: Chvojka, tree, tree just … This tradition was characteristic of central Ukraine and Hutsul – the west country, and can now be seen on the gates of dried twigs of firs . “Giltsevye” tradition, depending on the village or the village, too, are different. For example, in some areas young chopped two branches – one at the gate, a second house. In others it was decided to cut a twig brother of the bride, and all bought in the third wedding tree.
Also in the central and western parts of the country it has been popular ritual when zasvatannaya girl “picking his furnace” (puts his hand in the cooled ashes), thereby asking the houses permission to marry. If something pricked her finger, which meant that the groom should be abandoned. The researchers see this as their symbolism: a nail girl fell not just ash and particle parental home warmth, maternal love, which she will take with him to the house of the groom.
The traditional wedding culture in all regions vital role always played a bread and towels.

It was believed that the suit without bread – do not suit. For central Ukraine was a special ritual bread exchange: it is important that the parents of the bride matchmakers Communion their pastries. If the owners of the house did not want to share the bread, which meant that they did not accept the offer to marry. The same meaning was and the imposition of the girl or her parents pumpkin.
The main decoration of any wedding table was always a loaf that was baked on a Thursday or Friday. For this name karavayschits – married women, happy family life. In central Ukraine, usually on the bottom of the towel embroidered wedding tree: the roots were a symbol of the ancestors, the trunk – the family, and flowers – the young. The background was always white – it symbolized emptiness: young, becoming in the towel, it should fill their lives.

In some regions of Western Ukraine girl before giving consent to the marriage, the bride asked: “Will you let me go “ponedelnichat”?”. Thus the girl ask for “time off”

A mandatory attribute of the newlyweds in the registry office was a bowl with a candle

Wedding cup was considered a talisman family. From the family archive T. Voznyuk
In the 70s came to replace the short dresses in floor length. But they were still without too much jewelry and lace. Often they are sewn to order. At the same time there was a tradition in the city honeymoon trip, with the obligatory laying flowers to the Lenin monument, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. “A mandatory attribute of the newlyweds in the registry office was a bowl with a candle, which burned from the eternal flame burning in the registry office, – remembers from Kiev Tatiana Voznyuk -. Bowl is we kept during registration candle I still have as a guardian of our family.”. To encourage young people to get married, the company began to pay for the wedding. So there were “Komsomol wedding.” “We plant is fully paid for cafes, also gave television – says Irina from Lvov Suvilova.
1980: A feast is for 100 persons and Prohibition

For photos from the “rook” queues. From the family archive A. Panchenko
Weddings are becoming ever more widespread and grow into new traditions. In addition to the usual loaves and towels, dolls on machines obsypaniya young (first grain, and later coins and sweets), there was a fashion to be photographed at the “boat” – the monument to the founders of Kiev. Sometimes the queues to it! Dresses are still preferred to sew, more lush, and in restaurants for celebrations sometimes invited 80-100 people every year. “We already had live music and toastmaster, – says Kievan Alexander Panchenko -. Again started to give money, my wife and then they even went on a honeymoon trip to Leningrad, then it already was fashionable.”
But more often gave dishes, well, the most chic gift was then carpet. With the adoption of Prohibition (1985-1987 gg.), The wedding “sang and danced”, people went to all sorts of tricks. “We walked once at a wedding where vodka” disguised “in vases” – smiles from Kiev Piotr Tokarczuk.
1990: first away CEREMONY

Fleece on the bride’s head – a sign of the ’90s
In the early 90’s wedding we have to walk on all the traditions of the 80’s. “Still working and honeymooners salons where coupons can be bought imported shoes and clothes,” – says a resident of Shostka Svetlana Jura. By the way, visiting the ceremony began to conduct it in the 90s. “In 1994, my husband brought from Israel scenario of this ceremony, and we had a registry office on the basis of the Dnieper,” – says Eugene Goldberg, director of the agency’s wedding “5 stars”.
But in the late 90’s the majority of Ukrainians was not up to the ceremonies. “I’m getting married in a short red dress, the groom was dressed in jeans, wedding walked home,” – says Olga Dyakov from Lviv. In the 90s style disco prevailed, but because the bride make-up looked like war paint Indians, but an essential element of fashionable hairstyles was to comb “cap” bangs.
2000s: the crowning becomes fashionable